Plenary - Strategic data sets supporting awareness of the solar source of space weather
David Berghmans - Mathieu Kretzschmar
Tuesday 19/11, 09:00 - 10:30 and 11:00 - 12:30
Previous space weather weeks have concentrated on user groups, on products, on services, on models, ...
but rarely a session has focussed on space weather data sets. Any space weather awareness that we might have or any
service that we might provide depends however crucially on core data sets. In this session we propose to dig to the
starting point and discuss the core data sets characterizing the ultimate driver of space weather, the Sun.
We seek to attract speakers from different sub-comunities of solar observers: imaging, radio spectra, indices and radiometers, solar wind parameters, both from the ground and from space. Since the requirements for space weather observations from space can be different from those of strictly scientific missions (e.g., different instrument performances, data accessibility requirement, or technological constrains from the platform), we also welcome contributions on the conception and development of space instrument and missions dedicated to space weather.
We encourage speakers to go beyond the presentation of their own
data set only and to act as representative
for an observation network or observation type. Speakers are furthermore encouraged to address the following
points relevant for space weather services:
- Which space weather user community depends on these data ?
- What are the technical difficulties (for the instrument in itself but also with respect to realtime/latency
and accessibility issues) and how can we overcome them ?
- How redundant is the data provision service (over Europe, over the world, ...) ?
The 'ideal' Collection of Data Sets for Space Weather Forecasting
Devos, Andy; Stegen, Koen; Vansintjan, Robbe; West, Matthew J; Mampaey, Benjamin; Delouille, Véronique
Royal Observatory of Belgium, BELGIUM
Several important data sets are currently collected via
different methods, ranging from remote to in-situ spacecraft and ground
observations. These are made available for space weather purposes
through various channels. The most commonly used data sets will be
described, including their advantages and drawbacks. There exists a
misalignment between the currently provided data sets and the
requirements requested by forecasters and other users of space weather
data. Inaccuracies, errors and delays in space weather forecasting
could often be reduced with better data-set management, especially in
terms of latency, accessibility and multi-point measurements. An
'ideal' collection of space weather data sets will be discussed.
Mission Concepts and Measurement Needs at the L4/L5 Points
Lavraud, Benoit1; and, INSTANT team2
1IRAP/CNRS/Université de Toulouse, FRANCE;
We will present both scientific and space weather objectives,
and the related measurements needs, of potential future missions to the
L4 and L5 Lagrangian points. We will present past and current concept,
which vary largely by objective from primarily science-driven to purely
space weather-driven. An intermediate concept, which we shall call
INSTANT (INvestigations of Solar Transient Associated Natural Threats),
will be discussed.
PROBA2 a Space Weather Monitor
West, Matthew1; Seaton, Dan1; Dominique, Marie1; Berghmans, David1; Zender, Joe2; Stegen, Koen1; Pylyser, Erik1
1Royal Observatory Belgium, BELGIUM;
PROBA2 is a European Space Agency space weather mission,
comprised of two Sun monitoring instruments, "The Sun Watcher using APS
and Image Processing" (SWAP, an EUV imager) and the "Large Yield
Radiometer" (LYRA), a solar UV radiometer. PROBA2 is used for both
science and space weather forecasting, and has provided a continual
data set since late 2009.
In this talk we will discuss the data-sets provided by
PROBA2, the operational constraints and difficulties of the mission as
well as the advantages and flexibility of being a small mission. In
particular we will look at PROBA2's unique pipeline for data delivery
and some of the challenges and opportunities PROBA2 presents as a
result of the spacecraft orbit and processing requirements. We will
also discuss the variable conditions to which the spacecraft is exposed
in orbit and our efforts to track and correct for degradation of the
instruments throughout the course of the mission.
Monitoring Ionospheric Plasmas in Space Weather Context via DSLP/Proba-2 Data Archive
Travnicek, Pavel1; Stverak, Stepan2; Pavelka, Roman2; Hercik, David3; Zender, Joe4
1Space Sciences Laboratory, University California, Berkeley, US, UNITED STATES;
2AsI & IAP, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZECH REPUBLIC;
3Technical University Braunschweig, GERMANY;
4ESTEC, ESA, NETHERLANDS
The experiment Dual Segmented Langmuir Probe (DSLP) on board
Proba-2 spacecraft (ESA) provides a long-term continual survey of basic
plasma properties measured in situ in the dawn and dusk sectors of the
upper terrestrial ionosphere. DSLP observations are acquired by two
identical segmented spherical Langmuir probes representing a novel
approach to a well developed plasma diagnostic technique. Starting its
nominal operations in May 2010, more than 3 years of regular
observations are currently being available providing a substantial data
set for monitoring observed ionospheric disturbances and irregularities
e.g. in view of potential space weather drivers. We show some of the
DSLP data scientific applications like seasonal or immediate variations
of derived plasma properties in comparison with possible effects of
sudden solar events or overall solar activity.
In order to facilitate the scientific analysis of the
large DSLP data set, all raw measurements are routinely being processed
into calibrated higher level data products and made available
throughout an online accessible data archive derived from the PDS and
CDF standards. Here we present the complete structure of the archive
with individual data products, and show available tools to access,
handle and analyse individual DSLP samples.
BASS2000 and HELIO: Dataset and Added-Values
Aboudarham, Jean1; Bonnin, Xavier2; Renie, Christian2; Fuller, Nicolas2; Cecconi, Baptiste2; Bentley, Robert D.3; Csillagy, André4
1Paris Observatory, FRANCE;
2Paris Observatory, LESIA, FRANCE;
3MSSL/UCL, UNITED KINGDOM;
Full Sun observations from ground or space provide important
information on the background of the Sun when important events occur.
Simultaneous and complementary data are necessary to have both time
continuity and spatial information. BASS2000 Meudon provides context
information from several instruments: Meudon and Coimbra
spectroheliographs, Brussels USET refractor, Pic du Midi coronograph
solar radio observations. Some of these data are used to populate the
Heliophysics Feature Catalogue (HFC) developed in the frame of the
European project HELIO. HFC provide around one solar cycle of
descriptions for filament, prominences, coronal and photospheric active
regions, sunspots, coronal holes, radio sources at metric wavelength
and radio type III bursts. The time tracking of the behavior of solar
features requires continuity in observations and the best time
resolution possible. Space probes are submitted to lifetime constraints
while ground-based observations have to deal with many defaults
(clouds, sky transparency, parasites, ...) that have to be taken into
account before being able to extract added-values from them.
We'll describe here what has been done, and the needs
for standardization of data description in order to develop generic
tools compliant with Virtual Observatory.
UV/EUV Solar Spectral Imaging Data for Space Weather
Buchlin, Eric; Baudin, Frédéric
IAS (CNRS/U. Paris-Sud), FRANCE
The upper solar atmosphere (chromosphere and corona), emitting
mainly in the ultraviolet, plays a crucial role as a source of space
weather events. It is continuously observed by imagers and
spectro-imagers such as those from SoHO, STEREO, and SDO, and their
data is of interest for the space weather community. The MEDOC centre
at IAS includes such large data sets, and provides added-value products
such as differential emission measure maps and tools such as the
FESTIVAL multi-instrument visualization software. Images allow us for
instance to detect filaments / prominences automatically, potentially
giving an early warning for an eruption.
We will present the data sets presently available as
well as the ones that future space missions will provide. We will
describe the issues related to extremely large data sets. We will
finally show some example of analysis of these data sets.
Ground-Based H-Alpha Imaging of the Solar Sources of Space Weather
Veronig, Astrid1; Pötzi, Werner1; Temmer, Manuela1; Riegler, Gernot2; Pock, Thomas2; Hirtenfellner-Polanec, Wolfgang1; Möstl, Ute1; Baumgartner, Dietmar1
1University of Graz, Kanzelhöhe Observatory - Institute of Physics, AUSTRIA;
2Graz University of Technology, Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, AUSTRIA
We review the availability and use of ground-based H-alpha
observations for the study of the solar sources of space weather.
High-cadence full-disk imaging in the H-alpha spectral line provides us
with a valuable means to identify erupting filaments - potentially
associated with Earth-directed coronal mass ejections - and the onset
and peak of intense solar flares in quasi real-time. We present first
results of the automatic detection of solar flares and erupting
filaments implemented at the Kanzelhoehe Observatory H-alpha observing
system in the frame of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program.
Specific problems related to the ground-based H-alpha observations and
potential solutions will be discussed.
A New Solar Observing Network for Space Weather Operations and Solar Physics Research
Hill, Frank1; Roth, Markus2; Thompson, Michael3
1National Solar Observatory, UNITED STATES;
2Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, GERMANY;
3High Altitude Observatory, UNITED STATES
Since all space weather originates in and on the Sun,
forecasters need continuous, long-term, consistent, and reliable solar
data as a foundation for useful predictions. It has long been
recognized that an effective strategy to obtain nearly continuous solar
data is to set up a ground-based network of identical observing
instruments geographically distributed so that gaps from night time,
weather and instrumental problems are reduced. While space platforms
can provide nearly-continual solar observations that are also free of
terrestrial atmospheric limitations, networks have five distinct
advantages: the costs of developing and maintaining a network are
roughly a factor of 10 to 15 lower; the network instrumentation can be
upgraded, and repaired when it fails; the network lifetime is in
principle unlimited; there are less stringent telemetry restrictions
than for satellite-borne platforms; and networks are not very
vulnerable to space weather events. In addition, there are a number of
new scientific research directions in solar physics that motivate the
desire for a new ground-based network, particularly one that is capable
of multi-wavelength measurements that provide data at different heights
in the solar atmosphere. Such observations would provide information on
wave propagation and the vector magnetic field as a function of height
in the solar atmosphere. In turn, these data would provide greatly
improved inferences of the structure and dynamics below active regions
via helioseismology, as well as more accurate extrapolations of the
magnetic field in the corona. This presentation will outline the
scientific and operational requirements, and describe some instrumental
concepts for a new network.
The Strategic Opportunities for Space Weather from Synoptic Full-Disk Vector Magnetogram Data
NorthWest Research Associates, UNITED STATES
Systematic observations of the photospheric magnetic field provide
guidance and challenges for understanding the solar cycle and space
weather, by allowing study of solar surface magnetic features and
their behavior over days, weeks, and solar cycles. Routine continuous
observations of the line-of-sight component have proven crucial for
advances in many topics of solar and space-weather research, and are
now being routinely used in real-time forecasting of space-weather
events. Observations of the full vector of the photospheric field have
historically been more sparse; they are more difficult. Yet from even
the earliest routine observations of the photospheric vector field came
crucial insights into the magnetic morphology and energy storage of
the active regions responsible for space weather events such as solar
flares and coronal mass ejections. Vector solar magnetic field data
-- specifically when routine, sufficiently-well sampled (temporally,
spatially, spectrally) and uninterrupted over a sufficiently long
time period, such as are now beginning to be available -- allow for
investigations (a) statistical in nature, which can (b) avoid some of the
very limiting assumptions required when using solely the line-of-sight
magnetic component, i.e. (c) having those two additional components
of information to provide the full physical magnetic vector at the
surface, provides information on the plasma physics, available energy,
and dynamic behavior of solar phenomena simply not available otherwise.
I highlight future promises (based on current research) that are available
from routine, continuous (synoptic) photospheric vector magnetic field
observations, especially in the context of space-weather-related research
and improvements to operations for topics such as early detection of
emerging active regions, forecasting solar flares, and improvements to
Space Weather Monitoring; Benefits and Needs of the e-Callisto Network.
Zucca, Pietro1; Monstein, Christian2; Gallagher, Peter T.3; Marqué, Christophe4; Carley, Eoin P.3; Morosan, Diana E.3; McCauley, Joe3
1Trinity College Dublin, IRELAND;
2Institute for Astronomy, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich, CH-8093, SWITZERLAND;
3School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, IRELAND;
4Royal Observatory of Belgium Avenue Circulaire 3 B1180 Brussels, BELGIUM
Extreme space-weather events are natural phenomena caused by
solar activity that can have a serious impact on modern technological
infrastructures. Monitoring near real time the solar activity is
crucial to predict the arrival time of such events on Earth.
The e-Callisto network, initiated through IHY2007 and
ISWI, is a worldwide-distributed set of radio spectrometers designed to
monitor solar radio emission in the metre and decametre bands. Here we
describe the network characteristics and we present the important
contribution of the e-Callisto network as a 24-hour monitor of the
solar eruptive activity.
Solar Radio Monitoring at Nançay Observatory - Spectrography and Imaging
Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Kerdraon, Alain; Lecacheux, Alain
Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, FRANCE
Radio emission of the active Sun at decimetre to decametre
wavelengths (frequencies below 1 GHz) reveals electron beams, shock
waves and confined energetic electron populations during flares and
coronal mass ejections. The information gained is relevant to
astrophysical research on solar eruptive activity, particle
acceleration and propagation, as well as to space weather issues such
as early signatures of coronal mass ejections and particle acceleration
that may affect the Earth.
The Nançay radio observatory has a worldwide
unique set of complementary instruments that monitor the Sun : imaging
with the Radioheliograph (150-450 MHz) and spectrography with the
Decameter Array (10-80 MHz) have been carried out since several years.
Since September 2012 a new spectrograph (140-1000 MHz) is being
operated. Furthermore a new low-frequency receiver has been installed
at the Decameter Array, opening the window between 30 and 10 MHz, which
is heavily contaminated by terrestrial emitters. This set of
instruments presents a coverage of eruptive activity in the low and
middle corona (up to about a solar radius above the photosphere) which
goes as far down in frequency as possible from ground, and is
complemented by space borne spectrographic observations on the Wind and
STEREO missions, which will continue with Solar Orbiter in the future.
This contribution will present the instruments and data sets provided,
and illustrate their diagnostic capabilities with recent observations.
Solar Demon: Dimming and EUV wave Monitor for Space Weather
Kraaikamp, Emil; Verbeeck, Cis
Royal Observatory of Belgium, BELGIUM
Dimmings and EUV waves have been observed routinely in EUV
images since 1996. They are closely associated with coronal mass
ejections (CMEs), and therefore provide useful information for early
space weather alerts. On the one hand, automatic detection and
characterization of dimmings and EUV waves can be used to gain better
understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. On the other hand,
every dimming and EUV wave provides extra information on the associated
front side CME, yielding improved estimates of the geo-effectiveness
and arrival time of the CME.
Solar Demon has been designed to detect and
characterize dimmings, EUV waves, as well as solar flares in near
real-time on Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly
(SDO/AIA) data. It is running continuously at the Royal Observatory of
Belgium, and is the result of collaboration between the FP7 projects
COMESEP and AFFECTS. We present an overview of the system, show several
interesting events, and present general statistics of the detections
made during solar cycle 24.
SEPServer SEP Event Catalogue in and out of the Ecliptic; a
Ulysses and L1 Particle Data Driven Study
SANAHUJA, B.1; Agueda, N.1; Heber, B.2; Heyndrickx, D.3; Klein, K.L.4; Malandraki, O.5; PAPAIOANNOU, A.5; Vainio, R.6
12Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SPAIN;
2Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, GERMANY;
3DH Consultancy BVBA, Leuven, BELGIUM;
4LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ Paris,, FRANCE;
5National Observatory of Athens, GREECE;
6University of Helsinki, FINLAND
SEPServer is a three-year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework
programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union. The
objective of the project is to provide, among other things, access to
state-of-the-art observations and analysis tools for the scientific
community on solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The study of SEPs
at different latitudes and under different conditions provides useful
information about energetic particle propagation and acceleration, and
is one of the focus areas of the project. The Ulysses mission, launched
in 1990, explored the three dimensional heliosphere during different
solar activity conditions until the spacecraft was finally switched off
on June 30, 2009. The mission has been the only one that allowed us to
study the characteristics of SEPs at low and high latitudes. In this
the Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation
(COSPIN) Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) data of 38 to 125 MeV has been
used to identify a number of 40 events SEPs observed in and out of the
ecliptic plane over solar cycle 23. Using electron observations from
the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition and Anisotropy at
Low Energies (HISCALE) and proton intensities from the COSPIN
Low-Energy Telescope (LET), different characteristics of these events
have been determined and compared with simulation based analysis and
data from radio and optical observation. The event
catalogue presented in this paper will be available to the community
for further analysis through
L1 solar wind ACE Data Alerts by AFFECTS
Venzmer, Malte; Bothmer, Volker; Bosman, Eckhard; Rodmann, Jens
Institute for Astrophysics, Georg-August-University Göttingen, GERMANY
To quantify the space weather effects of the solar wind on the Earths magnetosphere and ionosphere
in-situ measurements are indispensable. Satellites like the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer)
spacecraft at L1 are thus necessary to obtain real-time solar wind parameters. We use these data to
generate L1 based near real-time warnings of severe space weather and its effects through RSS feeds.
As derivatives we provide Kp and aurorae feeds too.
The services are freely available through the AFFECTS website and the
feedback of current users testing them is extremely encouraging. The
space weather services in use and their soon provision as solar wind
mobile phone apps will help greatly increasing space weather awareness
to the scientific community and general public.
The International Sunspot Number Revisited: From SIDC to SILSO
Clette, Frédéric; Lefèvre, Laure; Wauters, Laurence
Royal Observatory of Belgium, BELGIUM
With the advent of a new generation of dynamo models, the
interest for long-term impacts of space weather and the current issues
about climate change, the sunspot number (SSN) is now being used more
than ever before as the multi-secular tracer of solar activity in a
wide range of science studies.This has motivated new efforts to
revisit, improve and expand this reference index of solar activity,
which had been left largely untouched for many decades.
Here, we review the main advances achieved recently,
both in the early historical part of this series but also in modern SSN
values. We also compare the different sunspot-based indices and
identify their usefulness and shortcomings relative to the
international SSN. Based on all new corrections identified in the SSN
series by a collective work, the publication of a new revised SSN
series is now planned for 2014, bringing the first thorough revision of
the sunspot number series since the time of Rudolph Wolf.
In parallel to this major update of the main data
series, we also entirely updated and reworked the operational
production of the SSN and its quality control. For our users, this
transition will materialize in the form of a new web site, new data
products as well as a new name for our World Data Center: SILSO, for
"Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations". We describe the new
features of this new central portal serving the sunspot number to our
growing community of scientific and non-scientific users.
Lists of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Events Based
on STEREO Recordings: 2007-2012
Papaioannou, Athanasios1; Malandraki, O. E.1; Dresing, N.2; Heber, B.2; Klein, K.-L.3; Vainio, R.4; Agueda, N.5
1Institute of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of, GREECE;
2Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, GERMANY;
3LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Paris, FRANCE;
4Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FINLAND;
5Dept. d¢Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, SPAIN
The STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) mission employs
two nearly identical space-based observatories - one ahead of Earth in its
orbit (STEREO-A: STA), the other trailing behind (STEREO-B: STB) aiming
at providing the first-ever stereoscopic measurements of the Sun. The intensities
of SEP events are strongly affected by the properties of the interplanetary magnetic
Field that control the acceleration and propagation of particles throughout
the heliosphere. The study of SEP events provides useful information on the
physics of solar particle genesis, propagation and acceleration. Therefore the
usage of STEREO recordings provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify
the evolution of such events at different observing points within the heliosphere.
In this work, two instruments onboard STEREO have been used in order to
identify all SEP events observed within the rising phase of solar cycle 24 from
2007 to 2012, namely: the Low Energy Telescope (LET) and the Solar Electron
Proton Telescope (SEPT). A scan over STEREO/LET protons within the energy
range 6-10 MeV has been performed for each of the two STEREO spacecraft (i.e.
STA & STB). We have tracked all enhancements that have been observed above
the background level of this particular channel and cross checked with available
lists on STEREO/ICMEs, SIRs and shocks as well as with the reported events
via literature. Furthermore, parallel scanning of the STEREO/SEPT electrons in
order to pin point the presence (or not) of an electron event has been performed
in the energy range of 55-85 keV, for all of the aforementioned proton events,
included in our lists. Simulation based analysis has
also been performed for two events of this catalog using the inversion
methods that were developed within SEPServer.
Comprehensive Event and Feature Catalogues are Essential if you want to Analyse the Causes of Space Weather
Bentley, Robert1; Aboudarham, Jean2; Messerotti, Mauro3
1University College London, UNITED KINGDOM;
2Observatory of Paris-Meudon, FRANCE;
3INAF-Obs. Trieste, ITALY
An essential step in understanding space weather effects is
being able to relate them back to their causal phenomena. Uncertainties
in the relative timing of events in different parts of the Solar System
are a result of the difficulties in measuring propagation velocities
and being unable to accurately define the propagation path length. It
is therefore essential that a large number of events are analysed so
that general trends can be determined
As part of the HELIO project we have assembled comprehensive event and features catalogues of solar and heliospheric phenomena. The Heliophysics Event Catalogue (HEC) now contains more than 60 event lists covering all the domains that constitute heliophysics while the Heliophysics Feature Catalogue (HFC)
has details of 7 different solar and heliospheric features. Both
catalogues cover a time interval of more than 15 years; some events
lists in the HEC go back many decades. Both catalogues can be accessed
through user-friendly interfaces or from SolarSoft/IDL.
There are difficulties if defining what constitutes an
event or feature. In both cases the detection algorithms used are based
on criteria that represent an opinion of an individual or group. They
do not represent an absolute description and care needs to be exercised
when undertaking statistical studies based on this type of data. It is
therefore beneficial to be able to compare and contrast lists that
describe the same event or feature derived by different teams.
For both catalogues we have tried to find multiple
ways of defining the items being reported. In the feature catalogue
several techniques have been used to detect active regions and coronal
holes - the results from all are included in the catalogue. In the
event catalogue we have sought out lists from different sources
identifying events and have multiple lists for flares, energetic
particle events and coronal mass ejections.
It is clear from the event lists that we assembled
that they need to be used collectively. Each individual list will
include some of the occurrences of a particular type of phenomena but
event major events can sometime be missed because of criteria used.
We discuss the implications of this and steps that need to be taken to make this type of capability even better.
First Steps towards a Homogeneous Solar Spectral Irradiance Dataset – - Selection, Merging and Quality Assesment.
Schöll, Micha1; Dudok de Wit, Thierry1; Kretzschmar, Matthieu1; Haberreiter, Margit2
1LPC2E - CNRS Orleans, FRANCE;
The sun varies over different timescales, from minutes to month, decades
and millennia. Its variation is an important driver to terrestrial climate changes and
as such an important input to climate models. While several observation
exists to date over a broad frequency range, they are sparse over both
time and frequency.
As part of the SOLID (First European comprehensive SOlar Irradiance Data
Exploitation) project we show first results of constructing a
homogeneous solar spectral irradiance dataset of the UV.
We present the data used, together with preliminary error-estimates and
self-consistent quality assessments, gap-filling methods and selection
criteria. In a next step, we utilize a combination of observed solar spectral
irradiance from several missions starting with OSO III in 1967 together with available proxy data,
to further quantify the data quality.
The SOLID project is part of the seventh European framework programme.
It aims to join a large variety of different solar spectral
irradiance data sets and combine them into one dataset and to
reconstruct the spectral solar variability further back in time. The
overall goal is to deliver a dataset that can be used by e.g. climate
researchers in order to account for the non-constant solar forcing.
Bucharest Solar Station (1956-2013)
Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy, ROMANIA
Bucharest solar station is located on the first meridian of the ESA countries visited by the Sun.
The systematic solar observations began in Bucharest
in 1956, with two refractors on a unique mounting: the lunette for
photosphere - a Zeiss equatorial 130/1950 mm and the other one, 80/1200
mm, for chromosphere.
The 130/1950 mm refractor (Zeiss, 1957) has been used
at daily, visual and photographic observations of the photosphere for:
sunspot relative number; sunspot coordinates and evolution; sunspot
area. The sunspot data monthly buletin were sent to Data Centers of
Pulkovo (1957-1968), Zürich (1957-1982), Freiburg (1957-1968), and
The 80/1200 mm refractor (Zeiss, 1958), equiped with a
Halle Lyot-Ohmann filter (0.5 A pass-band), until 2004, has been used
for chromospheric patrol observations, visual and photographic.
Distribution at data centers: Boulder Colorado, Meudon, Moscow (1958-1997), Pulkovo (1958-1997).
Past programs for both instrument: Solar patrol;
International Geophysical Year (1957-1968), International Quiet Sun
Years (IQSY, 1964-1965), Proton Flare Project (PFP, 1967), Rapid
Variations of the Solar Magnetic Fields (KAPG, 1966-1974); INTERCOSMOS
Publications: Solar Geophysical Data (USA), Quarterly
Bulletin of Solar Activity (Japan), Solnechnye Dannye (Russia),
Observations Solaires (Bucharest, Romanian Academy Publ.House,
After 1997, the solar activity daily survey ceased,
but observational campaigns were performed using a ST-7 CCD camera, 765
x 510 pixels (fov 0.7x0.5 from the solar disk), on the in Halpha
The solar dome was damaged and need need to be refurbished after 2002.
A new Halpha filter, Solar Observer Filter S-1.5 (0.3+/- 0.05 A, were mounted after 2012.
Currently, new CCD cameras and the financing of the
program are necessary, in order to perform full disk solar patrol of
the chromosphere and photosphere, as a space weather service.